Earning Pmi Pdu Credits

When developing a project schedule, those earning pmi pdu credits should understand the below concepts. These concepts are integral to any good set of pmi pdu courses related to schedule development.

Schedule Network Analysis: This is the development of the project schedule, using various analysis tools. Courses for pmi pdu credits should contain information on network analysis. This activity determines the earliest and latest dates the project can start and finish. Below are the tools schedule network analysis employs:

Critical Path Method

This tool helps the project manager to calculate the early and late start and end times. The method requires the activities to be mapped on a precedence diagram or PDM. Once the activities are listed by their relationship and precedence, input the duration of each activity. Sequence the activities by the number of work units planned to be used. For example, a particular path may start with an activity that lasts three days. The next activity in this path will start on the third day, and in this example lasts eight days. The next activity in this path will be set to begin on the eleventh day. This continues until this network path and all network paths are connected to the end node. The critical path is the path that is the one with the most days to complete. PMI pdu courses should contain an example of the critical path.

Critical Chain Method

This tool takes into account the effects of limited resources to a project schedule. The initial steps in determining the critical chain require that the critical path be determined as mentioned before. Once the critical path is determined, the resource availability for each activity is entered. Then the resource-constrained schedule is analyzed. This typically changes the critical path. The change is not incorporated into the chain because it does not accurately represent the amount of time it takes to complete the activity. Instead, cushions or buffers for any uncertainty are incorporated at both the end of the project, and also where other chains (that are not a part of the critical chain) feed into the critical chain.

Resource Leveling

This is a tool used to deal with resources that are limited, over-allocated, or to keep the resources in constant use. This is determined after the critical path is determined. Resource leveling usually alters the original path. For example, if resource A is scheduled on two different chains in a project, with one of them the critical path, the start of the second activity for resource A is moved to the end of the first activity. This move creates a new longer path, which now becomes the new critical path. PMI PDU courses should contain examples of resource leveling.

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What Are Carbon Credits

Carbon credits are a financial instrument that is part of national and international attempts to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. One carbon credit is equal to one ton of destroyed greenhouse gasses. These credits are generated by projects that either absorb carbon or otherwise reduce emissions through clean energy. Many individuals are now taking an interest in their carbon footprints, trying to lower their usage, as well as trying different ways to offset their carbon usage.

Carbon credits are part of an approach to emissions trading. With a certain amount of greenhouse gas allotted to markets, each individual group is given the opportunity to decide how much of a limited amount can be designated to each area. This allows industries to control the amount of greenhouse gasses they are using. This also allows industrial and commercial processes to market in the direction of lower emissions, or approaches that are used to not emit carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gasses into the atmosphere. This helps to finance carbon reduction schemes.

Carbon credits are in two different markets, the large compliance market and the smaller voluntary market. Corporations and industries participate in the compliance market where they purchase carbon offsets to comply with caps on carbon dioxide emissions. In 2006, about $ 5.5 billion of carbon offsets were purchased in the compliance market. This represents about 1.6 billion metric tons of CO2e reductions.

Many companies sell carbon credits. Carbon credits are purchased from investment funds or carbon development companies. Many of these companies have saved these credits from other individual products, and offset themselves and the buyers by selling them. The quality of the credits is based on the validation process, the type of fund, and the development company. The price is also affected by these things. Voluntary units typically have less value than the units sold through the rigorously-validated Clean Development Mechanism.

There are common features to carbon offsets: vintage, source, and certification regime. Vintage refers to the year in which the carbon reduction takes place, while the source refers to the project or technology used in offsetting the carbon emissions. The certification regime describes the rules and regulations that are in correlation to the carbon offsets.

In the smaller, voluntary market, individuals, companies, and others purchase carbon offsets because of their own determination to lower greenhouse emissions. The emissions they focus on lowering are most often transportation and electricity usage. In 2006, about $ 91 million of carbon offsets were purchased in the voluntary market, representing about 24 million metric tons of CO2e reductions.

There are two distinct types of carbon credits: carbon offset credits (COCs) and carbon reduction credits (CRCs). Carbon offset credits consist of clean forms of energy production, wind, solar, hydro and biofuels. Carbon reduction credits consist of the collection and storage of carbon from the earth’s atmosphere through reforestation, forestation, ocean and soil collection and storage efforts. Both ways are valid and positively recognized, each used in different situations.

Carbon credits initially came into existence as an attempt to inform and create awareness of the need to control emissions. Since then, it has been proven that the concept of carbon credits can be highly successful. This tradable system is one of the policy instruments that are very effective. As long as prices are maintained it should continue to be positive.

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